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Fractures of the femur (thigh bone) are some of the most common fractures seen in veterinary medicine. These fractures are usually the result of major trauma, but they can be caused by disease of the bone itself.
Generally, femoral fractures cause acute, non-weight bearing lameness of the affected hind leg. These fractures can occur in an immature bone (one that has not finished growing) or in a mature one; they can be "open" (skin wound with bone exposed) or "closed" fractures, and can be "simple" or "comminuted" (multiple bone fragments).
Depending on the nature of the fracture and the age of the animal, different methods of repair may be indicated for each situation. Femoral fractures can have serious complications if not repaired or if the repair fails.
What to Watch For
A thorough physical examination and medical history are important in any illness or injury. Based on the results of the physical examination, additional tests may be recommended. No laboratory tests are required to make the diagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, radiographs (X-rays) are taken of the leg.
Treatment will vary depending on the severity of the trauma and the species of small mammal. In general, anesthesia and surgical stabilization of the bone fragments are indicated for most femoral fractures because the femur cannot be adequately immobilized in a cast or splint to allow proper healing. Other treatment recommendations may include:
Home Care and Prevention
Take your pet to your veterinarian as soon as possible after any trauma for immediate attention. Try to prevent your pet from walking or moving too much. Do not attempt to place a splint or bandage on the leg unless there is profuse bleeding.
After surgical repair of the fracture, the animal will be kept restricted from activity for several weeks and the skin incision will be monitored while healing. A recheck with your veterinarian should occur in several weeks to evaluate how the bone is healing (with new radiographs), to monitor the animal's progress, and to make sure it is safe to increase the animal's activity level.
Many traumatic events are true accidents and thus unavoidable. Keeping your pet safely confined in a cage can help reduce risk of injury.